An Investigation of Modern Physics by Brian Williams
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  • Tin, BPA, BPS and Phthalates.

    Posted on July 19th, 2015 Brian 2 comments

    A Preliminary Investigation into My Death. See also “boil or carbuncle” .

     

    At the present time I am dying due to continuous carbuncles that are effecting the operation of my normal bodily processes. In the last eight years there has rarely been periods of longer than 5 to 6 weeks that I have not been suffering from an active carbuncle.

    At present (14th July 2015) I am suffering from a carbuncle in an awkward position on by backside. This is in its (I hope) final stage after 5 weeks continuous leaking. (Update; 10th September 2015. I am still having to change dressings twice a day, so no improvement yet.)

    The medical profession claim these carbuncles are boils and insist on prescribing antibiotics that have no effect on the problems.

    They claim that boils and carbuncles (and furunculea) are all the same thing. THEY ARE NOT. See “boil or carbuncle“.

    60 years ago I learned that carbuncles are not caused by streptococci. Boils are caused by streptococci. This was a simple experiment. Having had a carbuncle two years before, when I had a painful, throbbing boil erupt on my neck I decided to try stannous oxide tablets, as these had an almost miraculous healing effect on the earlier carbuncle after months of injections and capsules of antibiotics provided by the medical ‘experts’. Stannous oxide tablets had no effect on the boil. Chemists knew there was a difference between carbuncles and boils but the medical profession did not and still refuse to accept that there is a difference.

    Is this criminal negligence by the medical profession? In one way it is. The refusal of (or inability) of medical personnel to listen to patients is a serious problem. I have never had any doctor ask me whether the prescriptions he issued to me actually worked.

    Some prescription medicines include questions about side effects. Is the fact that the medicine prescribed has no effect on the complaint or illness and therefore extends the duration of the problem, not a side effect?

    I have recently obtained 20 grammes of Tin that I trying to purify sufficiently to pass my own safety requirements. This will probably take a few weeks. Note; I will still have the problem of determining whether the tin or the oxide is the crucial component: I feel that the oxide is the most likely but I hope that my body can create the oxide.

    Update 6th April 2016.  I am convinced that my body can handle handle the tin and use it for my benefit, however, I feel that tin oxide (Sn(ll) itself  is providing the improvement and that oxygen in the blood is modifying a small proportion of the tin into SnO. Tin metal itself is not a natural substance.

    ******************************

    Ongoing notes relating my current attempt to self medicate.

    1. At present (4th October 2015). Over the last two weeks I have been taking approximately 200 milligrams  each day of tin powder. (Note this is now correct, there was a fault on my electronic weighing unit)
    2. Over this period I have noted the following;  Swellings under both my arms have almost disappeared (after about 8 years).  Pubic and underarm hair growth has increased. (But I am still going bald.) Over the last three days leakage from my current carbuncle has almost stopped. PLUS (relating to type 2 diabetes) sensitivity on the soles of my feet has improved, making walking a lot easier. It is obviously too early to get excited about these improvements. I will continue with the low dosage because I am still not confident about the quantity of contaminants. However, it  does seem that by my body can use the tin itself.
    3. From the 1st of October 2015 I have rather complicated this series of tests by stopping taking statins. This was because it has been claimed by many sources that statins can cause leg muscle problems, which I have suffered from for about 18 months. Over the last two weeks I have noticed a significant improvement in my walking ability. A further unexpected result is a complete stoppage to my falling asleep at odd times during the day, often for 2 – 3 hours. I have not fallen asleep even once during the day since the 1st October.
    4. 1st December. Still not dosing off during the day. Carbuncle leakage stopped. No further improvement in walking.

    Brian,

    *****************************

     

    It is only recently that I have looked into the background to the changeover to plastic lined tins. I naturally assumed that it was just to make more profits for the involved companies. However, I find that not only that the companies have effectively prevented access to a highly beneficial vital mineral (SnO), they have replaced it with a toxic alternative.

    —————————————–

    NOTE: I have used lots of information from the ACU-CELL website (http://www.acu-cell.com/) which I have found interesting, well written and logical. However, I have still not found their address so that I can write to them.

    “Health Benefits & Toxicity of the Element Tin, and its Effect on Adrenals, Depression and Fatigue. Copyright © 2000-2015  Acu-Cell – Tin – Health Effects.

    While Tin (Sn) has been established to be an essential trace element for some animals (they won’t grow well without it), some researchers are still unsure of whether tin is essential to human health. Daily dietary intake of tin from various food sources is in the 1 – 3 mg range, which is less than 1/10th of the daily intake obtained years ago before lacquering tin cans, switching to aluminum cans, or, in the more distant past, when tin cups or tin pans were still in use. Since bronze contains copper and tin, the use of tin has been established well past the Bronze Age, several thousand years ago.

    Rat studies have shown that tin-deficient diets resulted in poor growth, reduced feeding efficiency, hearing loss, and bilateral (male pattern) hair loss.”

    “Tipton and Shafer examined tin in human tissue after accidental deaths.

    They noted that tin was found in the aorta, brain, heart, kidney, liver, muscle, ovary, spleen, pancreas, testes, stomach, and uterus, but none was found in the thyroid of any victim, while the prostate, which usually shows no other trace element, had tin.”

    [Note by Brian; Since the canning industry stopped the use of tin only and replacing the tin with a BPA lining I have had Pancreitus , Heart problems including a triple bypass and Prostate cancer.]

    “Average concentrations were the same range as cobalt, iodine, chromium, and selenium, which are known vital nutrients. Inorganic tin is capable of entering into biological activity at saline pH, and it is far less toxic than other known vital trace elements such as copper and cobalt. In addition, tin levels do not vary statistically with age, gender, or geographical areas. Misk found traces of tin in the fetal heart and spleen, and higher levels in the liver, while Schroeder and others reported no tin in stillborns.”

    Tin is associated with Iodine the same way as calcium is associated with magnesium (see “Tin & Iodine” for details).  Tin supports the adrenal glands, and iodine supports the thyroid gland, with both subsequently affecting cardiac output:  Tin + adrenals control the left side, and iodine + thyroid control the right side.  In addition to low Vitamin C and/or Vitamin B1, low tin is a common nutritional cause of low adrenals, which can lead to left-sided cardiac insufficiency.  While fatigue or depression may be experienced with cardiac insufficiency of either side, breathing difficulties or asthma are more common with left-sided cardiac insufficiency, and swelling of hands and feet is more common with right-sided cardiac insufficiency,regardless of the cause.


    Comparing thousands of patient records showed that better than 90% of patients tested exhibited moderately low, to very low levels of Tin when referenced to the status of all other essential trace minerals, making tin the most deficient element compared to any other trace mineral measured.
    I had 285 individuals taking part in the Nutritional evaluation of Tin, some on a short-term basis (3 weeks),and others on a long-term basis (1 – 2+ years), resulting in some valuable feedback on various responses encountered, including side effects, although the rather poor absorption of stannous oxide was a limiting factor in being able to achieve optimal cellular levels of tin in all subjects.
    Of the changes experienced after supplementing tin, negative reactions, e.g. stomach / digestive upsets, or skin reactions, were at par or less compared to the best tolerated trace minerals such as chromium, calcium, or magnesium.  Positive health effects were numerous and included improvements with fatigue, some forms of depression, and a general increase in energy, well-being, and mood.  There were also benefits with certain types of headaches, insomnia, asthma, or improvements with digestion, skin, or various aches and pains.

    Tin poisoning (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tin_poisoning)

    Main article: Tin poisoning

    Tin poisoning refers to the toxic effects of tin and its compounds. Cases of poisoning from tin metal, its oxides, and its salts are “almost unknown”; on the other hand certain organotin compounds ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organotin_chemistry#Toxicity}   are almost as toxic as cyanide.[25]

    —————————————-

    Extract from;

    IBISWorld UK. UK Industry Market Research: Data & Analysis on 400 Industries.

    www.ibisworld.co.uk.

    What Kind of Cans Are Used for Canned Foods?

    by Bonnie Singleton, Demand Media.

    The majority of cans used for canned foods around the world today are made from steel. Although there is a thin layer of tin on the surface, there is only 5 to 6 pounds of tin per one ton of steel used.

    Canned Controversies.

    Almost all metal food and beverage cans contain an industrial chemical called bisphenol A, or BPA. The chemical is used in epoxy resins that coat the inside of food cans. There is a growing concern from scientists and health organizations like MayoClinic.com that BPA can seep into food or beverages. This is a problem because BPA has been linked to prostate and breast cancer, heart disease and damage to the prostate gland of fetuses, infants and children. To avoid this danger, look for cans labeled BPA-free.

    But,

    BPA vs. BPS Options

    Cans need to be lined with something, and you’ll typically have no way of knowing what that “something” is. Often, it’s a similar chemical known as bisphenol-S (BPS).

    Unfortunately, BPS is not a safe alternative. Research has shown BPS has estrogenic activity comparable to estradiol, the most potent human estrogen. It was also found to be capable of enhancing estradiol-mediated cell signaling, making it a particularly potent endocrine disruptor.6

    Furthermore, the study showed BPS can induce apoptosis (cell death) and interfere with cellular secretion of prolactin (PRL)—a hormone that regulates hundreds of biological functions, including metabolism, reproduction, and lactation.

    Originally, BPS was heralded as a suitable alternative because it appeared to be less prone to leaching than BPA… but it must be getting into food because the majority of Americans already have detectable levels in their bodies. Scientific American noted:7

    “BPS was a favored replacement because it was thought to be more resistant to leaching. If people consumed less of the chemical, the idea went, it would not cause any or only minimal harm. Yet BPS is getting out. Nearly 81 percent of Americans have detectable levels of BPS in their urine. And once it enters the body it can affect cells in ways that parallel BPA.”

    Unfortunately, even if a can (or plastic product) is labeled BPA-free, you can’t be sure it’s also free of BPS. And even if it doesn’t contain BPS, there’s a good chance it contains other harmful chemicals, like phthalates.

    Banning BPS will not solve this problem, as there are many types of bisphenols, and simply switching from one to another is nothing but a game of toxic musical chairs.

    At present, you may be paying more for a “BPA-free” product that is no safer than the old BPA-containing variety… You’re also exposed to a number of other chemicals courtesy of food and beverage containers, most of which have no warning labels at all.

    ————-

    Fluoridation of water supplies.

    More information on this at; http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2015/06/20/fluoride-deception-continues.aspx

    This is something that I was aware of at the time that the government decided to add fluoride to public water supplies. Working in the chemical industry it was common knowledge that it was very toxic and was difficult to dispose of. Luckily, our local water company refused to add fluoride to its water supplies. However I have since avoided any products containing fluoride, and advised others to do the same. Obviously I cannot argue that fluoride has effected my health.

     

     

     

     

    Stannous Oxide to replace Fluoride in toothpaste?

    Extract from “Tin Based anti-Tumour Drugs”, Edited by Marcel Gielen.

    Springer Science & Business Media, 29 Jun 2013. (Page 148+)

    A traditional belief that the tin workers in Beauve never suffered from furunculosis led to the use of tin and its compounds in the treatment of staphyloccol infections. In 1917 Frouin and Greigore published a study which suggested that tin, tin oxide, stannous chloride and sodium stannate modified the virulence of staphylocci.

    [A traditional belief? Or actual knowledge? A furuncula is a carbuncle and carbuncles are not caused by staphyloccol infection. Brian]

    This work, based on seven infected rabbits and two control animals, has since been discredited and more recent evidence indicates that neither soluble nor insoluble tin compound of tin have any effect on staphyloccci in vitro or in vivo.

    [I personally discovered this in 1956. The work by Fruouin & Greigore I would assume related to transferring infections from a sufferer of a Furuncula (carbuncle) to the host rabbits. If later tests used infection from a boil or stock staphylocci then obviously no effect would be found. Brian]

    Nevertheless, the belief that tin had some value in the control of cutaneous sepsis persisted well into the 20th century and resulted in an occurrence of organotin poisoning in France 1954.

    [The belief was that tin was valuable in curing carbuncles/furuncles, NOT cutaneous sepsis. This belief was NOT the cause of the organotin poisoning, which was caused by manufacturing negligence. Brian]

    The proprietary compound involved, “Stalinon”, had been contaminated with triethyltin impurities and this resulted in the deaths of more than 100 people.

    [This is a different type of belief. This belief was by the medical profession, Cutaneous Sepsis does not apply to carbuncles because the sepsis generally starts in the muscles or fat and it can take many days, even weeks for any signs to appear in the cutaneous layer (Skin) Brian.]

    In the UK a preparation containing methyl stannic iodide, “Staniform”, was available before 1958 as an external treatment for staphyloccal infections and an oral treatment containing tin powder and tin(II) oxide “Stannoxyl” was available until recently.

    [‘Stannoxyl’ was the last treatment I managed to obtain and was old stock in 1984. At the time I was being treated with antibiotics for weeks with absolutely no effect. A local chemist managed to find a single course of Stannoxyl from wholesalers and within a few days I was cured. Brian]

    In contrast to the organotins, metallic tin and inorganic compounds are generally non-toxic with the notable exception of stannane, Sn H4, which is more toxic than arsine.

    For many years, stannous compounds have been used in dentistry and oral hygiene. As long ago as 1947, it was known that tin(II) fluoride protected dental enamel from dissolution in lactic acid and since then SnF2 has been incorporated into dentifrices, mouthwashes, topical solutions and occasionally. dental cements.

    [In 1945 US started adding fluoride to public water supplies. ]

    The compound appears to exert its prophylactic and therapeutic effects in several ways. In combination with acidulated phosphofluoride it allows control of dental caries; it inhibits dental plaque growth; it effectively controls root hypersensitivity; it reduces root surface solubility and finally, it causes less mottling than sodium fluoride.

    It has been said that the clinical effect of antimicrobial agents as plaque growth suppressors is not well correlated with in vitro antimicrobial assays of the same agents.

    Reports indicate that while both stannous chloride and stannous fluoride possess bacteriostatic effects on oral micro-organisms in-vitro [Laboratory tests outside the body], growth inhibition by SnCl2 in-vivo [actual tests in the body] is only slight. However, no explanation has been offered for these different effects and the results may prove to be anomalies caused by the experimental difficulty in keeping stannous ions in solution.

    It has been shown that commercial toothpastes containing SnF2 alone or in combination with Tin(II) pyrophosphate (Sn2P2O7), function as efficient plaque inhibitors and it appears that the Tin(II) [Stannous Oxide] ion is the bacteriostatic agent, with little, if any, effect from the fluoride component. Most of the tin retained in the mouth is bound to the epithelial surfaces, the dental plaque and salivary macromolecules and is slowly released over a period of about 4 hours following brushing, thus allowing a long lasting bacteriostatic effect.

    [Therefore there is no excuse for using fluoride in water supplies, toothpaste or mouthwashes.]

     Stannous oxide (Tin(II)) is the safest of all the metallic oxides. Aluminium, Copper, Iron, Cromium, manganese, Zinc etcetera can all become toxic outside of certain narrow limits, whereas Stannous Oxide can be overdosed by a large amount  with the only symptoms being similar to eating too many apples.

    Brian.

     

     

     

    ———————————-

    Essential Minerals

    The fact that Tin is not deemed to be an essential mineral is, I feel, due to poor experimental practices. I will explain some of these later.

    My main purpose at present is to solve my problem of severe tin shortage in my diet. Normal dietary input is limited to 1-3mg per day against a recommended figure of 10-20mg proposed by Acu-Cell.  (Note: Acu-Cell don’t seem to want to sell you any supplements and give no advise on how to get them. I’ve tried)

    Most of this is not retained in the body. Adding to this problem are ‘antagonists’, chemicals that reduce the effectiveness of the tin that is retained in the body.

    In the Chart below (From Acu-Cell) the blue line indicates the ‘Normal’ for healthy people. Note; The Normal line does not mean that the same amounts (mg) are involved. ‘Normal’ for one element may be 10mg but normal for another element may be 1000mg.

    Note; You cannot just increase one item and hope for a cure. A careful balancing is required between multiple elements. You need to go to the Acu-Cell website for much further information.

    Brian

     

    Alzheimer's Trace Elements

     

    In this chart three of the main Tin antagonists are at above normal levels: These are  Iron, Calcium and Copper.

    Low levels of Tin and Iodine would indicate that there would be some heart efficiency problems.

    Low levels of Selenium and Germanium would indicate some brain and nerve problems.

    Low levels of Selenium and Sulphur can indicate a wide range of problems including Arthritis and nerve problems.

    Note; The extremely low sulphur levels in Alzheimer sufferers tends to highlight a set of problems for the elderly. Egg Yoke is the main natural source of sulphur. Egg Albumin (The White of Egg.) apparently causes constipation in the elderly. Recent medical opinion advises people to eat less eggs. Carers tend not to give eggs to the elderly due to the constipation problem.

     

     —————————————–

    Phthalates What are they and What are their dangers?

    © 2015 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved.

    Phthalates are everywhere, and the health risks are worrying. How bad are they really?

    Phthalates are everywhere, and a tidal wave of new research has documented their wide-ranging negative health impacts, but what are the real risks?

    Lately, it seems like a new study on the health impacts of phthalates comes out every week. The chemicals are everywhere: they’re used in everything from household cleaners to food packaging to fragrance, cosmetics, and personal-care products.

    In 2003, researchers at the US Center for Disease Control documented widespread exposure to a high level of a group of chemicals called phthalates (pdf) across the general American public. The chemicals act as binding agents and also make plastics flexible.

    The CDC recommended that the chemicals and their effect on human health be studied further, a recommendation that helped unlock funding for dozens of studies focused on phthalates, resulting in a tidal wave of recently published reports that largely indicate the CDC’s concern was warranted.

    The CDC’s warning on phthalates also caught the attention of senators Barbara Boxer and former US representative Henry Waxman, who included the class of chemicals in their Consumer Product Safety bill, passed in 2008. That bill banned the use of some phthalates in children’s products, passed an interim ban on others, and required that the Consumer Product Safety Commission take a close look at the chemicals.

    While phthalates is a huge class of chemicals, several have been shown to have negative health impacts.

    The resulting report on phthalates – the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (Chap) on Phthalates (pdf) – was finalized in late 2014, and despite the chemical industry’s efforts to soften the commission’s recommendations, public health advocates are largely pleased with the effort, a rarity when it comes to government-penned reports on chemical safety.

    With academic studies and policy reports consistently voicing concern over the health impacts of phthalates, and consumers beginning to sit up and take notice, regulation may not be far behind.

    “The Chap report is the first major regulatory document in the federal government that’s highlighting the extent of the new science on the risks of phthalates,” says Erik Olson, senior strategic director of food and agriculture and health programs for the Natural Resources Defense Council. “The fact that the commission is looking both at phthalates as a group and at the toxicology of individual phthalates is really important,” he says.

    Olson was the deputy staff director for the US Senate’s environment and public works committee when the Consumer Product Safety Bill was written and passed. Between the Chap report, a National Academy of Sciences report looking at phthalates as a class and what he calls “the tidal wave of research that’s been coming out fast and furious” in the past year or so, he said, “we’re getting past the phase of complete denial from the industry – they can no longer claim that there’s no risk at all with phthalates.”

    What’s the harm?

    Name a major public health concern over the past two decades and there’s likely some link to phthalates exposure.

    In the past few years, researchers have linked phthalates to asthma, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, breast cancer, obesity and type II diabetes, low IQ, neurodevelopmental issues, behavioral issues, autism spectrum disorders, altered reproductive development and male fertility issues.

    While phthalates is a huge class of chemicals and nowhere near every chemical in the class has been studied, several have been shown to have negative health impacts: butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), dibutyl phthalate (DnBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), dipentyl phthalate (DPP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-isohexyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate (DcHP), and di-isoheptyl phthalate.

    Enough distinct phthalates have been studied to indicate that companies should proceed with caution when using any chemical in the phthalate class, particularly in products for pregnant women or young children, whom the research has indicated are the most vulnerable to the effects of phthalates.

    One of the first phthalates to raise a red flag, DEHP, was replaced in hundreds of consumer products with DiNP, only for researchers to discover a few years later that exposure to DiNP is correlated to male genital birth defects and impaired reproductive function in adult males.

    Public health advocates hope to learn from the mistakes made in regulating bisphenol A (BPA) as momentum gathers behind the regulation of phthalates, and ensure that one harmful phthalate isn’t just replaced with another over and over again.

    BPA was singled out as the sole chemical of concern in the bisphenol group, and regulated as such. Manufacturers largely replaced BPA with bisphenol S (BPS), which researchers are now discovering is equally as problematic as BPA.

    With phthalates, the research has come before any sort of regulation – companies are not even required to list phthalates on consumer product labels – and legislators are already looking at the entire class of chemicals, as well as any particularly bad ones.

    No escape

    Both because of their ubiquitous usage and because they are not listed on product labels, phthalates are next to impossible to avoid. They are in household items (vinyl flooring), personal care products (hair care, body wash, some cosmetics), fragrance, household cleaners, and food. Even for those who either avoid these products or buy phthalate-free variations, phthalates lurk in unexpected places.

    In food, for example, even milk packaged in glass may have passed through plastic tubes on its way from the cow to the bottle, taking DEHP along with it. “Milking machines use a lot of plastic and DEHP is free and very lipophilic (fat soluble), and milk is full of lipids, so it just pulls the DEHP out of the plastic tubing and into the milk,” explains Robin Whyatt, professor of environmental health sciences at the Columbia University Medical Center and the lead author on several landmark phthalate studies. “So my guess would be that milk is a pretty important source of dietary exposure to DEHP.”

    Spices are another surprising source of phthalate exposure. A 2013 study, published in the journal Nature, compared the phthalate levels of two groups, one eating their regular diet but armed with a handout of recommendations for ways to reduce BPA and phthalate exposure in their diet, and the other eating a catered diet consisting solely of local, organic fare, none of which had touched plastic packaging. The study authors were shocked to find that DEHP levels in the local, organic group jumped 2,377% over the course of the experiment. Determined to figure out why, the researchers tested all of the foods consumed by the group and found high levels of the phthalate in dairy products and various organic, imported spices.

    “The fact is you can’t know if a food has phthalates in it – you can suspect, but it’s almost impossible to know,” Olson says. “That makes them hard to avoid, which is why you need a regulatory framework.”

    What now?

    Regulation of consumer products moves slowly in the US, and that has proven to be especially true when it comes to chemicals. Despite the recent movement on phthalates, Olson says it is likely to be a long time before we have the sort of wide-reaching framework that would adequately protect the public from harmful exposure.

    That doesn’t mean all is lost in the meantime. State and federal regulations have already eliminated the chemicals from some products, and that list is likely to grow. California’s Proposition 65 now includes four phthalates – DINP, DEHP, DBP and BBP – under its labeling requirements, and the state’s Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) recently proposed changes to Prop 65’s warning requirements, which would require manufacturers to list specific chemicals in their warnings and make those warnings more detailed (currently the warnings are vague, stating only “this product [or building] contains substances known by the state of California to cause cancer”).

    “Prop 65 will be a driving force for change on phthalates,” Olson says. “Companies don’t like to put warning labels on their products.”

    Consumers can also take matters into their own hands by avoiding products packaged in “recycling-code-3” plastic, products that include the vague ingredient “fragrance” on their label, and purchasing organic products packaged in glass as much as possible.

    Whyatt also recommends that consumers remove any food packaged in plastic from its packaging and place them in glass. “DEHP continues to leech over time, so you do actually reduce exposure by changing the storage container, even if it’s been in plastic before you bought it,” she says. “All the DEHP has probably not come out yet by the time you get it home. And if there’s still DEHP in there, it’s probably still leeching out, so you can at least reduce your exposure some extent.”

    “If we start by addressing the products where we know there’s significant exposure to phthalates, and we start with the most vulnerable communities – pregnant women and children – we can make a real difference,” Olson said. “We could take care of a lot of food exposure through FDA regulation and toys through the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and that’s a lot. It’s not all, but it’s a good chunk.”

    Retailers could also play a significant role, as they have with other chemicals of concern. Target and Walmart both launched initiatives to reduce or eliminate toxic chemicals from their shelves last year. Both retailers have said they will make evidence-based purchasing decisions to protect their customers’ health. With a mountain of scientific evidence piling up on phthalates, it can’t be long before consumers begin to put pressure on retailers and retailers in turn push their suppliers to find both alternatives to phthalates and ways to remove the chemicals from their products altogether.

    Phthalates can fairly simply be removed altogether from products, with no replacement, according to “green” chemist Bruce Akers. It’s when the chemicals are used to create tubing or packaging that eliminating them becomes tougher: “If you want soft, squeezable plastic, you’re using phthalates,” Akers says.

    But according to Whyatt, companies could be using flexible polymers instead. “There are flexible polymers that don’t require a plasticizer – they exist,” she says. “They haven’t been studied really, so we need to know more, but they probably do not leech the way phthalates do. The problem with phthalates as plasticizers is that they’re free floating, they don’t attach to the polymer, so they leech easily. If you have a flexible polymer that shouldn’t happen.”

    Despite the size of the issue, Olson remains positive. “We’ve turned a corner on the regulation of phthalates,” he says. “They’re extremely widely used in the economy and it won’t be overnight that we’ll see widespread phase-outs, but clearly we’ve crossed the river and we’re now at the point of debating exactly which uses need to go and where we can use alternatives.”

    Correction: This article was updated on 11 February to say Henry Waxman is a former US representative and not a current senator.


    © 2015 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved.

     More to follow.

    ———————————–

    This is ongoing research in an attempt to save my own life. It may already be too late, but stannous oxide would stop the carbuncle problem within a few days, [See Boil or Carbuncle.] and allow other aspects of my health to improve.

    Author; Brian Williams

  • Shaken Baby Syndrome – Preliminaries

    Posted on April 15th, 2012 Brian 3 comments

    You will not find much humour in this series of posts. The original report on which it based was produced while I was in a state of anger, over many months, at the lack of honesty and professionalism by the prosecution.

    Syndrome – From Google.

    1. A group of symptoms that consistently occur together or a condition characterized by a set of associated symptoms.
    2. A characteristic combination of opinions, emotions or behavior.

    In the ‘Shaken Baby Syndrome‘ the original symptom responsible for the name was damage done to the upper arms of a  baby or child. This  could be bruising, breakages or shoulder dislocations, or a combination of these. Later, in some cases, damage was discovered to the child’s neck. These symptoms should normally lead to the suspicion of Shaken Baby Syndrome.

    This type of injury is not, in itself, proof of the baby being shaken. Some-one catching a falling child could accidentally inflict the same injuries. Bruising on one side of one arm alone would indicate the possibilty of a falling injury.

    A falling child could suffer a single arm bruising, neck injury and broken arm. A child falling downstairs could have all of the above injuries.

    Neck injuries without damage to the upper arms should indicate that  ‘Shaken Baby Syndrome’ does not apply.

    ‘None shaking’ neck injuries would show bruising or cuts to the head or neck.

    Now consider the following extract from Google

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is a triad of medical symptoms: subdural haematoma, retinal hemorrhage, and brain swelling from which doctors, consistent with current medical understanding, infer child abuse caused by intentional shaking. In a majority of cases there is no visible sign of external trauma.

    SBS is often fatal and can cause severe brain damage, resulting in lifelong disability. Estimated death rates (mortality) among infants with SBS range from 15% to 38%; the median is 20%–25%. Up to half of deaths related to child abuse are reportedly due to shaken baby syndrome. Nonfatal consequences of SBS include varying degrees of visual impairment (including blindness), motor impairment (e.g. cerebral palsy) and cognitive impairments.

    Notice the complete lack of any mention of arm injuries or neck injuries.

    A few years ago I was requested to carry out an investigation into the medical evidence presented by the prosecution in a case claiming that the parents had caused life threatening injuries to their infant son by seriously shaking him and throwing onto the  floor or onto a hard object.

    The prosecution team (against the parents) included 12 consultants and 6 Social Services personnel. The defense team proposed by the Social Services, comprised the parents, an inexperienced solicitor and a medical consultant who was later revealed as a professional prosecution witness in this type of case. (The social Services admitted that they had to work in accordance the charges, and spent most of their time attempting to get the parents to admit their guilt.) The parents had been told by the Social Services that they must not tell any-one about what was happening, but the parents had more sense and told their parents.

    The family then decided that  they would have to handle the defense themselves, and began collecting published medical information. I became involved when I was asked to draft a letter for them repudiating some legal point.

    After many months I did manage to prove that the parents were not guilty, and that the damage occurred at the hospital.

    What was the damage?

    Subdural haematomas.

    Retinal Haemorrhages.

    Brain Swelling.

    So we had the situation that the child had all the symptoms claimed by the prosecution to prove ‘Shaken Baby Syndrome, but I could prove that the damage actually occurred at the hospital. This throws the validity of all the evidence required for justification of ‘shaken baby’ trials into serious doubt.

    The interesting point about all this is that the prosecution was instigated and controlled by the people responsible for the injuries

    The medical use of the Shaken Baby Syndrome has become a ( as stated under Syndrome –  category 2),

    “A characteristic combination of opinions, emotions or behavior.”

    Unfortunately this relates to medical professionals, not patients.

    If you or anyone known to you is accused of ‘Shaken Baby Syndrome’, get a solicitor or lawyer to insist on the immediate release of copies of all medical records relating to the child.

    In this particular case the first item of the medical records was accidentally received by the defense 5.5 months after the charges were made, despite repeated request for full records. Some items presented to the court by the prosecution were forgeries.

    Author – Brian Williams – Contact e-mail —nets@talktalk.net

    Additional Reading.
    The Five Percenters
    PO Box 23212
    Newcross SE14 5WB
    London
    England.
    Telephone Number: 020 7639 0942
    email: sbs5@dircon.co.uk.
    Web Sit:sbs5.dircon.co.uk

  • Evidence from the Moon’s Craters

    Posted on December 30th, 2011 Brian 2 comments

    The visual evidence for the argument that the Moon was not formed at the same time as Earth but was captured by the Earth at some later date.

    NOTE: The above underlined text is  simply a hypothesis (like most physics). Anyone can produce a hypothesis, it  need not be logical or realistic.

    However, the argument that the moon was formed at the same time as the Earth is also a hypothesis.

    There is no evidence of how the solar system was formed. There are only hypotheses.  The claimed ‘Big Bang Theory’ is not a theory, it is a hypothesis.

    —————————–

    Possible visual evidence for ‘Moon Capture’  hypothesis.

    The libration (swinging like a pendulum/oscillating) of the Moon indicates that the Moon is heavier on the side facing the Earth. (The heavy side acting like a pendulum weight)

     

    Moon

    Moon

    In the above photographs the Left hand photo is the Earth facing side and the right hand side is the far-side of the Moon.

    The largest craters on the Moon are on the side facing the earth. It is unlikely that the Earth has been firing huge masses at the Moon during the last 300 million years to cause these craters, so there must be some other reason.  Obviously the Earth would not totally protect the Earth facing side of the moon from objects from outside of the earth/moon orbit, but the Earth’s gravity would tend to affect the trajectory of such objects.

    Let us consider  that the Moon is a lost satellite from one of the planets within the solar system, or even a minor planet from some faraway sun.

    The  moons orbit relative to the Sun is within 5 degrees of the ecliptic, the asteroids are within 10 degrees, this would indicate the path of the Moon could have passed through the asteroid belt before being captured by the Earth.

    Multiple impacts during its passage through the asteroid belt could cause deviation of its trajectory.

    Also, these impacts would embed heavy metals from the asteroids into the leading surface of the moon. This would explain the imbalance of the moon. Impacts of lighter materials (the asteroids are not all heavy metals) would scatter debris and dust across the Earth-side face. Note; The current argument from the physicists for the moon,s imbalance is that its core is offset!! Would they please explain how that could happen.

    It is estimated that there are 750,000 asteroids of about 1 kilometer diameter or above, the largest being Ceres at about 975 kilometres diameter, (there may have larger ones before the moon passed through them.} There are approximately 10,000 at approximately 10 kilometers diameter. A single pass through the asteroid belt could have caused most of the large craters on the  Earth side of the moon. Its passage through the  asteroid belt would amount to (very) approximately 180 million kilometers.

    Although the asteroids are actually very widely spaced,  sweeping a path through them with an object the size of the moon would likely create many impacts over a distance of 180 million kilometers.

    Author;- Brian Williams

     
  • Laughter for the Ladies – (and other Females)

    Posted on November 21st, 2011 Brian 4 comments

    For years we have been getting e-mails from two female friends covering all types of comedy.

    Here are the first of a selection for the ladies.

    ——————————-

    Just be careful lads.

    The first man married a girl from Essex.

    He told her that she was to do the dishes and house cleaning.

    It took a couple of days, but on the third day, he came home to see a clean house and dishes washed and put away.

    The second man married a girl from Sussex.

    He gave his wife orders that she was to do all the cleaning, dishes and the cooking.

    The first day he didn’t see any results, but the next day he saw it was better. By the third day, he saw his house was clean, the dishes were done and there was a huge dinner on the table.

    The third man married a girl from the North of England.

    He ordered her to keep the house cleaned, dishes washed, lawn mowed, laundry washed, and hot meals on the table for every meal.

    He said the first day he didn’t see anything, the second day he didn’t see anything but by the third day, some of the swelling had gone down and he could see a little out of his left eye, and his arm was healed enough that he could fix himself a sandwich and load the dishwasher.

    ————————–

    A Womans Poem.

    He didn’t like my casserole,

    He didn’t like my cake,

    He said my biscuits were too hard,

    Not like his mother used to bake.

    I didn’t make his coffee right,

    He didn’t like my stew,

    I didn’t mend his socks for him

    The way his mother used to do.

    I pondered for an answer,

    I was looking for a clue,

    Then I turned around and  smacked him one,

    Like his mother used to do.

    ________________

    Life in the Australian Army.

     

    Text of a letter from a kid from Romagna to Mum and Dad. (For Those  of you not in the know, Romagna is a  small  town, west of Quilpie in the far south west of Queensland, Australia )

     

    Dear Mum & Dad,

     

    I am well. Hope you are too. Tell me big brothers Doug and Phil that the Army is better than working on the ranch – tell them to get in bloody quick smart before the jobs are all gone! I was a bit slow in settling down at first, because you don’t have to get out of bed until 6am. But I like sleeping in now, because all you’ve got to do before breakfast is make your bed and shine your boots and clean your uniform.

    No bloody horses to get in, no calves to feed, no troughs to clean – nothing!!  You have to shower though, but its not so bad, because there’s lots of hot water and even a light to see what your doing!

     

    At breakfast you get cereal, fruit and eggs but there’s no kangaroo steaks or goanna stew like Mum makes. You don’t get fed again until noon and by that time all the city boys are knackered because we’ve been on a ‘route- march’ – gee, its only just like walking to the windmill in the bullock paddock!!

     

    This one will kill my brothers Doug and Phil with laughter. I keep getting medals for shooting – don’t know why. The bulls-eye is as big as an apple and it don’t move and it’s not firing back at you like the Johnsons did when our big scrubber bull got into their prize cows last year! All you’ve got to do is make yourself comfortable and hit the target – it’s easy!

    You don’t even load your own cartridges, they come in little boxes, and you don’t have to steady yourself against the roll-bar of the truck when you reload!

     

    Sometimes you’ve got to wrestle with the city boys and I’ve got to be real careful because they break easy – it’s not like fighting with Doug and Phil and Jack and Boori and Steve and Muzza all at once like we do at home after the muster.

    Turns out I’m not a bad boxer either and it looks like I’m the best the platoon’s got, and I’ve only been beaten by this one bloke from the Engineers – he’s 6 foot 5 and 15 stone and three pick handles across the shoulders and as you know I’m only 5 foot 7 and eight stone wringing wet, but I fought him until the other blokes carried me off to the boozer.

     

    I can’t complain about the Army – tell the boys to get in quick before word gets around how good it is.

     

    Your loving daughter,

     

    Susan

    ———————————-

    Black & White TV

    After being married for 50 years, I took a careful look at my wife one
    day and said “Fifty years ago we had a cheap house, a junk car, slept
    on a sofa bed and watched a 10-inch black and white TV, but I got to
    sleep every night with a hot 18-year-old girl.

    Now … I have a $500,000.00 home, a $35,000.00 car, a nice big bed and
    a large screen TV, but I’m sleeping with a 68-year-old woman. It seems
    to me that you’re not holding up your side of things.”

    My wife is a very reasonable woman. She told me to go out and find a hot
    18-year-old girl and she would make sure that I would once again be
    living in a cheap house, driving a junk car, sleeping on a sofa bed and
    watching a 10-inch black and white TV.

    Aren’t older women great? They really know how to solve an old guy’s
    problems.

    —————————

    Curtain Rods

    On the first day, she sadly packed her belongings into boxes, crates and suitcases.  On the second day, she had the movers come and collect her things.

    On the third day, she sat down for the last time at their beautiful dining-room table, by candlelight; she put on some soft background music, and feasted on a pound of shrimp, a jar of caviar, and a bottle of spring-water.

    When she’d finished, she went into each and every room and deposited a few half-eaten shrimps dipped in caviar into the hollow center of the curtain rods.  She then cleaned up the kitchen and left.

    On the fourth day, the husband came back with his new girlfriend, and at first all was bliss. Then, slowly, the house began to smell.  They tried everything; cleaning, mopping, and airing-out the place.

    Vents were checked for dead rodents, and carpets were steam cleaned.  Air fresheners were hung everywhere.  Exterminators were brought in to set off gas canisters, during which time the two had to move out for a few days, and in the end they even paid to replace the expensive wool carpeting. Nothing worked!

    People stopped coming over to visit. Repairmen refused to work in the house. The maid quit.

    Finally, they couldn’t take the stench any longer, and decided they had to move, but a month later – even though they’d cut their price in half – they couldn’t find a buyer for such a stinky house.

    Word got out, and eventually even the local Realtors refused to return their calls.

    Finally, unable to wait any longer for a purchaser, they had to borrow a huge sum of money from the bank to purchase a new place.

    Then the ex-wife called the man and asked how things were going. He told her the saga of the rotting house. She listened politely and said that she missed her old home terribly and would be willing to reduce her divorce settlement in exchange for having the house.

    Knowing she could have no idea how bad the smell really was, he agreed on a price that was only 1/10th of what the house had been worth … but only if she would sign the papers that very day.

    She agreed, and within two hours his lawyers delivered the completed paperwork.

    A week later the man and his girlfriend stood smiling as they watched the moving company pack everything to take to their new home, and to spite the ex-wife, they even took the curtain rods!

    Nice to have a happy ending.

    ———————————

    EVE.

    After three weeks in the Garden of Eden, God came to visit Eve. “So, how is everything going?” inquired God.

    “It is all so beautiful, God,’ she replied. ‘The sunrises and sunsets are breathtaking, the smells, the sights, everything is wonderful, but I have just one problem.

    ”It’s these breasts you have given me. The middle one pushes the other two out and I am constantly knocking them with my arms, catching them on branches and snagging them on bushes. They’re a real pain.”

    And Eve went on to tell God that since many other parts of her body came in pairs, such as her limbs, eyes, ears, etc. She felt that having only two breasts might leave her body more ‘symmetrically balanced’.

    “That’s a fair point,” replied God, “But it was my first shot at this, you know. I gave the animals six breasts, so I figured that you needed only half of those, but I see that you are right. I will fix it up right away.”
    And God reached down, removed the middle breast and tossed it into the bushes.

    Three weeks passed and God once again visited Eve in the Garden of Eden.

    ” Well, Eve, how is my favourite creation?’

    “Just fantastic,” she replied, “But for one oversight. You see, all the animals are paired off. The ewe has a ram and the cow has her bull. All the animals have a mate except me. I feel so alone.”

    God thought for a moment and said, “You know, Eve, you are right. How could I have overlooked this? You do need a mate and I will immediately create a man from a part of you. Let’s see….where did I put that useless T**?”

    Now doesn’t THAT make more sense than all that rubbish about the rib?

    ————

    Typical macho man married typical good-looking lady, and after the wedding, he laid down the following rules:

    “I’ll be home when I want, if I want and at what time I want — and I don’t expect any hassle from you.  I expect a great dinner to be on the table unless I tell you that I won’t be home for dinner. I’ll go hunting, fishing, boozing, and card-playing when I want with my old buddies, and don’t you give me a hard time about it. Those are my rules.  Any comments?”
    His new bride said: “No, that’s fine with me.  Just understand that there will be sex here at seven o’clock every night, whether you’re here or not.”

    ——————-

    Husband (a doctor) and his wife are having a fight at the breakfast table. Husband gets up in a rage and says, “And you are no good in bed either,” and storms out of the house.

    After some time he realizes he was nasty and decides to make amends and rings her up.   She comes to the phone after many rings, and the irritated husband says, “What took you so long to answer to the phone?”

    She says, “I was in bed.” .   Husband, “In bed this early, doing what?”

    “Getting a second opinion!”

    —————————-

    THE SILENT TREATMENT

    A man and his wife were having some problems at home and were giving each
    other the silent treatment.. Suddenly the man realized that the next day he would need his wife to wake him at 5:00 AM for an early morning business flight.

    Not wanting to be the first to break the silence (and LOSE), he wrote on a piece of paper, “Please wake me at 5:00 AM .”  He left it where he knew she would find it. The next morning the man woke up, only to discover it was 9:00 AM and he had missed his flight..

    Furious, he was about to go to see why his wife hadn’t wakened him when he noticed a piece of paper by the bed.   The paper said, “It is 5:00 AM. Wake up.”

    ————————————–

    A woman was sitting at a bar enjoying an after work cocktail with her

    girlfriends when Steven, a tall, exceptionally handsome, extremely sexy,

    middle-aged man entered. He was so striking that the woman could not

    take her eyes off him.

    This seasoned yet playful heartthrob noticed her overly attentive stare

    and walked directly toward her. (As any man would.) Before she could offer

    her apologies for staring so rudely, he leaned over and whispered to her,

    “I’ll do anything, absolutely anything, that you want me to do, no matter

    how kinky, for $20.00…

    on one condition…” Flabbergasted but intrigued, the woman asked what the condition was.

    The man replied, “You have to tell me what you want me to do in just three

    words.”

    The woman considered his proposition for a moment, and then slowly removed

    A $20 bill from her purse, which she pressed into the man’s hand along with

    her address. She looked deeply and passionately into his eyes, barely

    concealing her anticipation and excitement, and slowly and meaningfully

    said….

    .

    .

    .

    .

    “Clean my house.”

    ——————————————

  • Points to Ponder.

    Posted on November 7th, 2011 Brian No comments

    Division of Labour!

    This morning I had to delete 14 fake comments for a particular brand of running shoes.

    Checking on the web showed that apparently over 62,000,000 people were selling these.

    I wonder how many people were actually making them?

    Brian

    —————————————

    Cross Legs

    For over 30 years I’ve wondered why people crossed their legs. Yesterday I checked on Google to see if it had bothered other people. I was amazed to find over 330,000,000 entries. There was no point in checking all these but I checked the first 5 pages and then a random page sample. What surprised me was the number of arguments  (about 50%) relating to modesty.

    The point about leg crossing is that most mammals do this, from cats, dogs, lions tigers etcetera, and I doubt if any of these are particularly  interested in modesty. A woman may deliberately cross her legs for this reason, but unconscious leg crossing cannot be caused by this. The second most popular reason given is comfort,  but again I am unhappy about this, because it is not particularly comfortable. So, anybody got a better idea?

    Anyone like to add their own Points to Ponder?

  • My Fight with a Prehistoric Monster.

    Posted on October 9th, 2011 Brian 6 comments

    When I was about 7 or 8 years old I had an experience that I have never forgotten. This was about 65 years ago.

    My mother had given me half-a-crown ( 30 old pence, about 12.5 new pence in current money), packed two shirts, two pairs of socks, underpants, a spare pair of shorts, a pair of sandals and some sandwiches into a knapsack and sent me on my way.

    No, she had not banished me, it was the high spot of the year. I was going to my aunt in Lancaster for as long as she would put up with me. I have three sisters, my aunt had four sons, what a wonderful relief to get away from my sisters for a few weeks.

    Halfpence bus fare to Bolton, eleven pence return ticket to Lancaster and 2 mile walk to my aunt’s house and my holiday had started. No problem, I had done this the previous year. Not even a problem due to the fact that my aunt did not even know I was arriving.

    We did all the usual things, walking to Morecambe to go on the beach (about 6 miles), traveling up along the Lune river to watch the conger eels, watching the divers diving for salmon (probably illegal).

    Two of my cousins, Tommy(10) and Eric(12) used to go across the weir on the river. This was about 500 yards upstream from Skerton Bridge and was about 300 feet long.  They would slide down the grassy bank onto the weir, sit with their legs across it and then inch their way across. They had shoulder bags with them and would catch eels travelling over the weir, and the best place was in the centre of the river. They wouldn’t let me go with them because I was only a kid, (cheek, I was nearly 8 years old).

    Later in the holiday I decided that I would try this myself. Following them down to the river I waited until they were almost in the middle, and then I slid down the bank onto the weir. I then inched my way out into the river. The water flow around me was just about waist height and was much stronger than I expected. It was fascinating to see the fish and eels coming up over the weir and occasionally brushing against me. By the time I had gone about 70 feet I was quite comfortable and happy with my adventure.

    I then decided that I would try and catch a fish or eel. This was not as easy as I had expected because they were slippery and certainly did not want to be caught. Eventually I spotted a small eel about 12 inches long and grabbed it.

    Things then began to go seriously wrong. Having caught it I decided to let it go because I couldn’t move along the weir and carry an eel.

    Unfortunately I was unable to let it go because it was stuck to the back of my hand. I shook my hand about vigorously but without dislodging the eel. Then panic set in and I shouted for my cousins to help me. As they had been facing the same way as me they hadn’t realized that I was out in the river. They shouted to me to go back. This wasn’t easy to do with one hand whilst waving an eel about with the other, especially when in a panic and crying.

    I eventually made it back to land and climbed up the banking. I tried to pull it off with my other hand but it without success. I then ran up to the stone wall  and started banging the back of my hand against it to try and kill the eel, but again without success. Then my cousins arrived and finally manage to kill it.

    By this time I had a huge mark on the back of my hand plus numerous self inflicted injuries caused by the wall.

    We also had the problem of how to handle the problem with my aunt. We decided we would wait until we’d dried off and I would have to keep my hand in my pocket until the circular mark had faded. The other injuries could be passed off as normal messing about/falling  injuries. (Even at this age we had learned to understand how adults thought.)

    WHAT ABOUT THE PREHISTORIC MONSTER??????

    Well, the eel wasn’t an eel, it was a Lamprey and they are creatures of nightmares and make The Alien seem like a teddy bear.

    Lamprey 3Prehistoric? They were swimming around in Earth’s waters long before the dinosaurs arrived on the scene, and don’t seem to have evolved much in this time period, indicating a very high survival capability. (Also, most readers of this post would claim that 65 years ago would classify as being prehistoric.)

     

     

     

     

    Note: I do not know if the Lamprey pictured is identical to the one attached to my hand, but at the time biological research was the last thing on my mind.

    Photograph from Google.

    Brian Williams

    Author

  • Oldest Living Creature?

    Posted on July 18th, 2011 Brian 44 comments

    Amoeba, Memory and Intelligence.

    Strictly for amusement.

    The oldest living creature on the planet must be one of the amoeba or one of the similar type of creatures that recreate themselves by  binary fission, i.e.  each creature divides into two new identical ones.  I nominate this creature on the basis that it is clearly a creature, being capable of planned movement with an obvious purpose in mind, (I’ve known many a drunken human who couldn’t claim that much.)

    I have no idea how long they have been around, but it is obvious that each ‘individual’  must be the ‘same individual’ as the original one. Therefore each one must be millions of years old.

    You would think that having been alive all that time they would be super intelligent, but you could also argue that as each one only gets half a brain from each binary fission, then they must be getting less intelligent as time goes on. (This is not a valid argument because the human brain is really only a single cell organism in its early stages.)

    Do they have a brain? I suspect that they do because all deliberate movements in other creatures are controlled by the brain. There are many living things that move, such as plants but in general their movements are controlled by external stimuli such as the Sun or rainfall.(Possibly the drunk operates under the same external stimuli, such as the smell of alcohol.)

    Many biologists consider that the amoeba doesn’t have a brain, but it really depends on what are the functions needed to qualify for the definition of a brain.

    I think the definition that it can control its movements must be one of the main definitions of a brain.

    Reproduction is not a requirement, as even crystals reproduce themselves.

    Possibly memory is the main requirement, because memory is another survival trait.  It allows a creature to recognize dangers from previous situations. If the amoeba can modify its behaviour in response to danger, then this means that it probably has at least a rudimentary memory.

    We are coming to an obvious crucial point which is the very small brain (nucleus) capacity. Memory requires storage space, just like your computer. The small brain indicates that it has a very limited amount of memory storage, and will therefore only be able to remember a few things.

    So, is ‘intelligence’ dependant on the number of memory cells? Is a computer with 1 gigabyte of memory more intelligent than one having only one megabyte?

    Obviously not, because memory use in a computer is controlled by the CPU (Central processing unit), and in a similar way, biological memory requires control from the biological CPU. Memory storage is completely none intelligent. A book does not have intelligence even though it may be packed with useful information. ( Of course, this means that the same argument could be applied to the human brain. Is a vast amount of knowledge the same as intelligence?)

    A problem here is the word itself. Intelligence is derived from Intellect which comes from the French word Intellectus, meaning to choose between. This infers the ability to make decisions, (assuming intelligent decisions) therefore knowledge itself is not necessarily indicative of intelligence.

    The amoeba, therefore, may still qualify as an intelligent creature. It is evident that the amoeba has sufficient intelligence and memory to survive for millions of years in its environment. Does it actually need to be more intelligent or have more memory? A more important question is ‘Is the accumulation of knowledge in itself intelligent?’

    In many ways I find some sympathy with the amoeba. We both are uninterested in the names of the members of pop groups or the lives of long dead kings and queens.  We both cannot  find interest in every game played by the New York Yankees. Why swot up on history if no-one ever learns by it. Why waste memory on useless information storage. It would be useful if we could clear out  all useless information in our memories as you can on a computer.

    The human brain is rather strange in that it seems to able to store a vast amount of knowledge that appears to be almost unlimited. This cannot be actually  true even though scientist consider that only a small proportion of the brain is used. Recent research has been carried out on London taxi drivers who have to “Have the Knowledge” [ Note: London taxi drivers have to take a test on their knowledge of the London area before they can operate a taxi . This knowledge can take  up to 4 years to learn. This includes the best and fastest routes between any two points in London, a very complex problem.

    The research found that areas of the brain of London taxi drivers increased in size during the accumulation of  “The Knowledge”. Therefore the brain itself cannot have that much spare capacity.

    Maybe the amoeba will still be around when humanity is extinct, in which case the question would be “Who was the more intelligent, the amoeba or the extinct humans”.

    In binary fission can we be in any doubt that both the biological CPU and the memory take part in the fission process? This means that both halves of the original would have the same memories and the same ‘skills’.

    Although normally stated to be a single cell creature this is not strictly correct. It actually consists of thousands of cells.

    Author; Brian Williams

  • Prams – Design Gone Mad?

    Posted on May 6th, 2011 Brian 16 comments

    I was about 4 years old when I first learned to push a pram properly. I am not talking about a push-chair, those were easy to handle, even at 18 months old. I mean the old carriage built prams with the big wheels that normally ended up on trolleys and go-carts. After I had struggled for a few days I finally passed my test and my mother allowed me to transport my baby sister without having her guiding hand on the pram handle. After a week I could set the parking brake and just about put the hood up if it was raining. This was not easy because to me this pram was huge, I could only see my sister by standing on tip toe.

    69 years on I see adults struggling with pushchairs, (yes, pushchairs), that have been made using antiquated supermarket trolleys as the design standard. They are unwieldy, overweight and worse than supermarket trolleys for steering. They are frustrating to parents, take up too much space (at home and in the car), are overpriced and worst of all, are dangerous. Trapped fingers, broken nails, and like supermarket trolleys, are not interested in where you want to go.

    60 years ago push chairs went exactly where you wanted them to go, they were light, they were cheap, they folded up neatly and they were safe.

    Why?

    Apart from the fact that that there is ‘Fashion’ to blame, the main problem is that nowadays knowledge and experience are ignored in favour of gimmicks. Every possible design of the pram was tried out in the 18th and 19th centuries. The carriage pram and the basic design of the push-chair were confirmed as the optimum for easy handling by young women (and 18 month olds).

    The most important basic design detail was that ‘no steering aids’ gave the best steering. Sounds silly but its true.

    Four fixed wheels gives a stable platform but also ensures that the pram travels in a straight line. Try pushing a modern push-chair in a straight line. As much energy is wasted in keeping to a straight line as is used in pushing the pram. (Just like the supermarket trolley)

    A slight pressure on the pram handle and the front wheels lift off the floor. The pram can now rotate freely on two wheels and will ‘turn on a sixpence’. If you push a pram with 4 fixed wheels along a 400 yard pavement you will probably have to make the occasional adjustment to it. Forgotten your purse? Slight pressure on the handle, swivel round, release pressure, and your on your way back.

    Four fixed wheels gives you total and easy control.

    I have little doubt that the modern push-chair was copied off the supermarket trolley. Unfortunately the supermarket trolley is designed to carry heavy loads and therefore cannot use four fixed wheels. Some Do-It-Yourself stores have adopted the principle of the original pram in having two main load bearing wheels to enable easy steering. Unfortunately, these are normally fitted with castor-wheels at both ends, so you are left with a trolley that is easy to turn but won’t travel in a straight line.

    Note that supermarket trolleys are based on factory trolleys and trucks which have to carry heavy loads. However, factory floors are normally flat and level. Although within the supermarket the floors are flat and level, the parking areas are not. In our local supermarket about 25% of the parking area is seriously sloped and sometimes it can take 4 or 5 attempts to get the trolley near to the car.

    Author; Brian Williams

  • Origin of the Golden Section-Rev 2

    Posted on April 17th, 2011 Brian 6 comments

    Last week I came across a print of some notes I made nearly 30 years ago, relating to ‘The Golden Section’ and ‘Fibonacci Numbers.’ I later transferred these on a DOS 6 computer using WordPerfect 5.1, and Autocad 9. This must have been 20 years ago.

    The Golden Section.

    A ratio generally recognized by humans, even if unconsciously. Considered by many people to have a major significance in biology. Like many ratios it is not a nice number to deal with, but unlike any other ratio, it has a curious family relationship.

    If 0.61803398875 = ☼, then

    divided by 1.61803398875 = 1.000

    Golden Section Ratio = 1 plus ☼

    1.61803398875 / ☼ = 2.161803398875

    1.61803398875 x 1.61803398875 = 2.61803398875

    There are now thousands of web sites covering the Golden Section ratios and their significance in biology, so I will not go into this at present.

    Fibonacci Numbers

    A series of numbers created by adding together the previous two numbers, i.e.

    1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, etcetera.

    If you multiply the Fibonacci numbers by the Golden Section ratio you get the following results.

    1 x 1.61803398875 = 1.61803398875

    2 x 1.61803398875 = 3.23667981

    3 x 1.61803398875 = 4.854101964

    5 x 1.61803398875 = 8.090169954

    8 x 1.61803398875 = 12.94427191

    13 x 1.61803398875 = 21.03444184

    21 x 1.61803398875 = 33.97871375

    34 x 1.61803398875 = 55.01315559

    Etcetera

    All very confusing, but they do appear to be very close to the Fibonacci numbers, but one term up.

    However, the part number shown in Red intrigued me because I had come across this when working on the atomic structure.

    (I was working in London at Shell Centre at this time, and a book I bought in the Shell bookshop was my first introduction to the Golden Section, and as I was staying in a hotel during the week I had lots of time to waste at nights).

    Now 1.6 + [(0.090169954/10) x 2] = 1.61803398875

    Therefore I assumed that this number, 0.090169954, must be significant.

    After more juggling with the figures I came up with the following result.

    If 0.090169954 = ♥

    Then

    1 – (3 x ) = 0.7294017

    1 + (2 x ) = 1.1803398875

    2 – (1 x ) = 1.909830046

    3 + (1 x ) = 3.090169954

    5 + (0 x ) = 5.000

    8 + (1 x ) = 8.090169954

    13 – (1 x ) = 12.9442719

    21 + (2 x ) = 21.1803398875

    34 + (3 x ) = 34.27051

    55 + (5 x ) = 55.45085006

    89 + (8 x ) = 145.1722103

    Now let us look at a graph of the Fibonacci numbers.

    Fibonacci

    Not a pleasant graph to look at because there is obviously something wrong. The two points on number 1 are ridiculous.

    Now let us look at the graph for the Golden Section ratio. Note this only works if you use 5 as your control point.

     GOLDEN1.jpg

    A closer look at the beginning of this graph may be helpful.

    GOLDEN2.jpg

    Now ratios can be rather difficult to explain unless they are simple ones. Millions of man-hours have been spent attempting to find a true value for Pi (π), never realizing that it is an impossible task. Each iteration changes the parameters, therefore you can never arrive at an answer. (It does have a useful purpose in that it keeps mathematicians occupied while we get on with the useful stuff.)

    Logarithms are ratios and are very useful, but they are nearly always awkward numbers that you are dealing with. Pi (π) is an awkward number. The Golden Section ratio is an awkward number.

    They are awkward because they relate to reality. Reality is awkward. [What an awkward word awkward is!] (From middle English ‘awk’ meaning clumsy and ‘ward’ , Anglo-Saxon, meaning direction. Logical, I suppose)

    The Golden Section ratio relates to the structure of certain atoms, and this structure controls how many molecules are built up. (Even as a child, the idea of atoms with whizzing electrons seemed completely illogical, and as I grew older it became obvious that the idea was impossible)

    The Golden Section ratios align with the dodecahedron.

    Dodec4

    If  the octagonal faces are inscribed within a 1cm radius circle then the distance across opposite faces of the dodecahedron is 2.61803398875cm.

    The Golden Section ratio is a fact of life. There are other important ratios, but none have had the same importance or interest as the Golden Section.

    Nature has to handle the problems caused by the Golden Section ratio. It would be nice if nature worked with the simpler Fibonacci numbers, but this is not possible.

    Nature can produce numbers such as 1,2,3,5,8,13,21 etcetera, as in arms, legs, antenna, fingers but it is not easy, and it does not always get it right. Possibly evolution depends on the problems nature has with the Golden Section ratio.

    THIS IS A PRELIMINARY POSTING FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES. IT IS APPROXIMATELY 30 YEARS OLD AND IS QUITE LIKELY TO HAVE BEEN SUCCEEDED BY LATER RESEARCH. THERE ARE SO MANY ARTICLES ON THIS SUBJECT THAT I HAVE BEEN UNABLE TO FIND THE TIME TO CHECK THEM. NOTE:

    I am familiar with the standard mathematical notation with regards to Fibonacci. (I was given a personal lecture by the late Professor Laithwaite on this.) Unfortunately, like most mathematics, it does not explain anything,

    Author; Brian Williams.

    See also ; How to Build an atom

  • Contractors in your House? Hints and Tips

    Posted on January 3rd, 2011 Brian 11 comments

    During my working life as an engineer I have often had to deal with contractors and sub-contractors. These have ranged from from major international contractors to local builders and plumbers. Jobs have ranged from new chemical factories and oil platforms down to minor modifications.

    In this same period of time, (being a married man) I have spent many happy hours/days and sometimes absolutely miserable ones, doing work about the house. This has included plumbing, drainage, joinery, brickwork, electrical wiring, central heating and almost every aspect of home modifications and repairs.

    The combined experience of both commercial contracts and the problems of house modifications and repairs has enabled me to help friends with the problems of having contractors in their homes.

    If you are having work done on your home, there is in principle, a contract in operation. The contractor will carry out work, for which you will pay him. However, both you and the contractor need to agree the amount of work entailed, and the amount of money to be paid. Usually a contractor will supply an estimate based on your discussions with him. This is not normally very helpful, because he may forget things that you mention, and you may have forgotten to tell him some things that are important. Plus the estimate may state something like ” To building 10 metres x 5 metres extension as per your instructions. – Estimate £15,000″. This is of no help to you because the final price could be £30.000, because it was only an estimate.

    A more rigid contract is required so that both you and your contractor know exactly the extent of the work and the actual cost.

    Type of contract.

    Daywork.

    This is where the contractor specifies an hourly rate for his men and you pay for the total man-hours spent times this rate. Materials and deliveries etc. are added at cost plus a percentage. Generally not a good system, because you have no idea how much the job will cost you. This is only used when the time required for part of a job, (such as excavations)  is unable to be accurately determined before commencement.

    Fixed Price.

    The best method  but requires a good amount of preliminary work by you. It should be remembered that a ‘fixed price’ only applies to a fixed amount of work. Too often customers change their mind about aspects of the work which can rapidly increase the cost of a ‘fixed price’ contract. Always ensure that you clearly itemise exactly what you want doing, where you want things fitted, what type of doors, (including number of hinges and which side they should open on.)

    Changing something can cost more than fitting it in the first place, and fitting a door will normally cost more than the door itself. Once hinges and locks have been fitted, it is unlikely that the contractor will be able to reuse the doors again, and you will be charged extra for the doors plus fitting, and also for removing the hinges and locks from the original doors.

    Positions of lights and electrical sockets should be specified, because relocating them once fitted can be quite expensive, and would be a legitimate extra on a fixed price contract..

    Schedule of Rates.

    Not really suitable for household contracts, although 40 years ago you could buy data books that gave the costs of any type of work carried out. (Schedule of Rates). Still used on commercial contracts.

    General Hints

    There is usually a degree of suspicion by householders of any contractors carrying out work for them.

    This is partly due to having strangers within the household environment, partly to uncertainty as to the competence of the contractors, and partly due to the uncertainty of the final cost of the work.

    It is clear therefore, that there can be a considerable amount of worry involved in having work carried out in the household.

    Let us consider having strangers in the household. It is better for both parties if certain areas can be declared to be out of bounds to the contractor, but this could be a problem if the job entails rewiring the whole house, or installing a new central heating system. If possible remove all valuables and breakables from areas where work is to be carried out, or access required by the contractor. If these can be locked away somewhere all the better for both you and the contractor, as he cannot then be unfairly accused of breakages or stealing something that has just been mislaid.

    Toilet & washing facilities will have to be provided for the contractor. If the householder is unhappy about the workmen using the house facilities, then the contractor will have to supply his own. However, his price will have to allow for these facilities.

    Water & Electricity. These services will normally be supplied by the householder. It should be remembered that access to these must be available during the working hours of the contractor, even if the householder is not at home. If you are normally out during the working day, it may be advisable to have external water and power supplies fitted prior to the work commencing.

    Children can be a major problem and worry for a contractor. He is unlikely to have included for a child-minder in his price, and he could legitimately claim extra for time lost due to the presence of children. A workplace can be a very dangerous place for children.

    Access. There may be times when the contractor needs to be denied access to certain areas, i.e. the kitchen when preparing meals, possibly the bathroom and a child’s bedroom, at other times. Thought should be given to defining these times, and the contractor informed.

    Storage. If storage facilities are available for contractors tools, equipment & materials, ensure that your own tools & equipment are not stored in the same place. The person clearing the contractors equipment may be unaware of which tools belong to the contractor, and remove all the tools etc.

    Holiday Snaps & Memoirs. Remember that time spent showing workmen your holiday snaps, or discussing your wartime exploits, is time added to the job. The workmen get paid by the hour, and they get paid the same rate for looking at holiday snaps as for digging drains etc.. Which would you rather do ?

    Clean up. It is the contractor’s responsibility to clean up after the work is completed.

    Scams. There are millions of people around the world attempting to steal from the unwary. Many are involved in scams relating to work in and on houses. Never agree to have work done without a proper agreed price, in writing.
    Avoid gangs who arrive in unidentified vans, with no proper identification. Many have no skills apart from ripping you off. Never pay for work claimed to be ‘extras’ unless agreed beforehand.
    If you feel vulnerable always get a knowledgeable friend or neighbour to help out.
    Generally it is better to get a known local builder or handyman. [ Even I got caught out a few years ago. I was going to replace the felt on my roof, when a gang came round and offered to do it, using my materials, for a reasonable price. When most of it had been completed, (under my watchful eye), I had to go out on an errand. When I arrived back the men had gone and the job was finished. However, my wife said they had had to fill in the gaps in the brickwork above the windows and requested a further £15.00, which my wife had paid. These gaps were the vent holes over the windows, which I had clear out again over the next two days.]

    Payments.

    1. Never pay contractors any money before work commences, a good contractor will not ever request that you do. You cannot be liable for work not carried out, or goods not supplied. However, if you agree a start date for work to commence and you later change your mind about having the work done, you will probably incur costs.
    2. See BBC news item Builders Scam.
    3. For a small contractor it may be reasonable to use Stage Payments to help his cash flow. This means that he will be paid for sections of the work that have been satisfactorily completed. This should be discussed with the contractor to determine the completion stages, however, avoid situations that would leave you with problems if he was unable to continue further. If fitting a central heating system was part of the contract, then the completion of the complete system to a fully operational state would be subject to a stage payment. The partial completion of the central heating system for (say 3 bedrooms) would not justify a stage payment. The complete decoration of a room would be OK for a stage payment.
    4. It can be advantageous for you to purchase high price equipment if you have suitable storage available. This can save you money and help the cash-flow for small contractors. This only applies if you know exactly what you want, Light fittings, plugs and sockets, cookers, fridges, doors are typical items, but check sizes with the contractor before you buy them.

    More to come on this post.

    Author; Brian Williams